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By: Hayati

Definition According to Aronson (1978) in Buehl (2001), the jig-saw technique involves students in reading different selections and then sharing what they have learned with a group or whole class. The jig-saw technique can be used in a number of ways in the classroom. Jig-saw problem solving (Kagan,2009) will be used in teaching reading of a narrative text. In this case, students work in team (the number of team members can be various) and each student receives one of the clues to solve the team problem. Everyone must share the information on their clue card because the team can only reach a solution by connecting the information from all clues. So, students could be jigsawed to read different sections of a text (a narrative text).

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By Nur Taslimah


Psychology  is a study of the thought processes and behavior of humans  in their interaction with the environment. Psychologists study processes of perception, thinking, learning, emotions, motivations, personality, abnormal behavior, interactions between individuals, and interactions with the environment.

Understanding the theories of psychology, especially psychology of learning, is very beneficial to all of the educational stakeholders: students, teachers, headmasters, curriculum developers or designers, government, society and educational observers. The theories help them to identify how the learners are and how they participate in and experience  the learning process. Another positive effect of understanding the theories is that the theories assist teachers to design the appropriate techniques of teaching.

This paper will discuss one of the learning psychology, that is behaviorism. In this paper, we attempt to find the answers of the following questions:

  1. What is behaviorism?
  2. What are  the  implications of behavioral theory to the English Language Teaching (ELT)?


In msu site, Behaviorism is defined as “the study of human behavior focusing on one’s observable behavior as a response to the natural stimuli in the world. One common belief in Behaviorism is that one’s behavior, and subsequent learning, is only a response to all of the stimuli one encounters during their life. By studying stimuli one can predict behavior. Behaviorism assumes that the thoughts of a person can not be measured, and only occur as a result of previous stimuli.”

Behaviorists say that learners originally do not own any potentialities. The potentialities that they have are the result or the influence of factors outside themselves or the factors stemming from their environments, for example, their families, schools, society,  nature, culture, and religion.

The Behaviorist Theory was first introduced in 1913 by the American psychologist John B. Watson. Watson’s view was largely influenced by the research of the Russian physiologist Ivan P. Pavlov during the early 1900s. The most influential version of this theory is put forward by B. F. Skinner in 1959. His version of Behaviorism is best known as Radical Behaviorism.(Shameem, 2010).

B.F Skinner is considered to be a Radical Behaviorist because of his belief that we do have such a thing as a mind, but that it is simply more productive to study observable behavior rather than internal mental events. (McLeod, S. A. 2007). Baca lebih lanjut

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By Nur Taslimah

What Is Student Active Learning?

            Student Active Learning is an approach to instruction in which students employ the material they study through reading, writing, talking, listening, and reflecting.  Student Active learning stands in contrast to “standard” modes of instruction in which teachers do most of the talking and students are passive. ( )

Paulson & Faust in their book, “Active Learning for the College Classroom
define active learning as anything that students do in a classroom other than merely passively listening to an instructor’s lecture. This includes everything from listening practices which help the students to absorb what they hear, to complex group exercises in which students apply material to solve problem in  “real life” situations.. (

In the book of Active Learning: Creating Excitement in the Classroom, Bonwell and Eison  (1991) define active learning as the activity which involves students in doing things and thinking about the things they are doing.” It means that students must do more than just listen: they must read, write, discuss, or be engaged in solving problems. Most important, to be actively involved, students must employ in such higher-order thinking tasks as analysis, synthesis, and evaluation.

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By Nur Taslimah

A. Description

PQRST, similar to SQ3R, guides the students through five steps as they engage with their reading: Preview, Question, Read, Summarize, and Test/teach. It is Before-, During-, and After-Reading Strategy.

B. Why is it used?

•  To make predictions

•  To promote active reading

•  To monitor comprehension

C. Steps for PQRST

 1. Preview:

Students skim the selection, paying attention to headings and supplementary pictures, charts, and notes, to make a prediction of the content of the piece.

 2. Question:

Students pose or create questions based on the headings of the sections and subsections.

3. Read:

As students read, they search for answers to the questions they have posed.

 4. Summarize:

Students write a summary of each section.

 5. Test/Teach:

After completing the reading, students respond to their questions they posed earlier and/or they teach each other by taking turns stating main ideas from the reading.

D. Grade/term             : VIII /2

E. Time allotment       : 2 x 40 minutes

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